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Black, Brown, Bruised: How Racialized STEM Education Stifles Innovation Electronic Bibliography



1. Robbin Chapman, “Rendering the Invisible Visible: Student Success in Exclusive Excellence STEM Environments,” in Diversifying STEM: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Race and Gender, eds. Ebony McGee and William H. Robinson (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2019).

2. Chapman, “Rendering the Invisible Visible.”

3. Ruha Benjamin, “Innovating Inequity: If Race Is a Technology, Postracialism Is the Genius Bar, Ethnic and Racial Studies 39 (2016): 2227–34; Ebony O. McGee, “Devalued Black and Latino Racial Identities: A Byproduct of College STEM Culture?,” American Educational Research Journal 53, no. 6 (2016): 1626–62.

4. Ani Turner and Beth Beaudin-Seiler, W. K. Kellogg Foundation Report May 2018,

5. Ebony O. McGee, “‘Black Genius, Asian Fail’: The Detriment of Stereotype Lift and Stereotype Threat in High-Achieving Black and Asian Students,” AERA Open 4, no. 4 (2018): 1–16, doi: 10.1177/2332858418816658.

6. David R. Williams, “Why Discrimination Is a Health Issue,” Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, October 17, 2017,

7. Zinzi Bailey et al., “Racism in the Time of COVID-19,” The Interdisciplinary Association for Population Health Science (IAPHS), April 9, 2019,

8. Arline T. Geronimus et al., “‘Weathering’ and Age Patterns of Allostatic Load Scores Among Blacks and Whites in the United States,” American Journal of Public Health 96, no. 5 (2006): 826–833; Arline T. Geronimus, “The Weathering Hypothesis and the Health of African-American Women and Infants: Evidence and Speculations,” Ethnicity and Disease 2, no. 3 (1991): 207–221.

9. See Martha Hostetter and Sarah Klein, “In Focus: Reducing Racial Disparities in Health Care by Confronting Racism,” The Commonwealth Fund, September 27, 2018,

10. Jamelle Bouie, “Why Coronavirus Is Killing African-Americans More Than Others,” New York Times, April 14, 2020,

11. Michael D. Yates and John Bellamy Foster, “Trump, neo-fascism, and the COVID-19 Pandemic,” MRonline, April 11, 2020,

12. See

13. Nauseen Hasum et al., “Chicago’s Coronavirus Disparity: Black Chicagoans Are Dying At Nearly Six Times the Rate of White Residents,” Chicago Tribune, April 7, 2020,

14. Fabiola Cineas, “COVID-19 Is Disproportionately Taking Black Lives,” Vox, April 8, 2020,

15. See

16. Lydia Blanco, “Prior To Covid-19, Dr. Kizzmekia S. Corbett Was Formulating Success As A Black Woman In Science,” Black Enterprise, April 2, 2020,

17. Ibram X. Kendi, “Stop Blaming Black People for Dying of the Coronavirus,” Atlantic, April 14, 2020,

18. Kenya Evelyn, “It’s a racial justice issue: Black Americans are dying in Greater Numbers form COVID-19,” Guardian, April 7, 2020,

19. Janell Ross, “As more black Americans die from coronavirus, community leaders are taking action,” NBC News, April 17, 2020,

20. “Statement on COVID-19 Pandemic,” Science for the People, March 25, 2020,

21. Patrick Collison and Michael Nielsen, “Science Is Getting Less Bang for Its Buck,” Atlantic, November 16, 2018,

22. Dorothy Roberts, Fatal Invention: How science, politics, and big business re-create race in the twenty-first century (New York: New Press/ORIM, 2011); Alondra Nelson, The Social Life of DNA: Race, reparations, and reconciliation after the genome (Boston: Beacon Press, 2016).

23. Adam Rutherford, “How to Fight Racism Using Science,” Guardian, January 26, 2020,


1. I capitalize Black and White for racial groups in accordance with American Psychological Association recommendations.

2. National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, “Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering,” National Science Foundation, last modified January 2017,

3. Scott E. Page, The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008).

4. Douglas L. Medin and Carol D. Lee, “Diversity Makes Better Science,” Association for Psychological Science Observer, May–June 2012,

5. Medin and Lee, “Diversity Makes Better Science.”

6. George F. Sefa Dei, “Afrocentricity: A Cornerstone of Pedagogy,” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 25, no. 1 (1994): 3–28, 5.

7. Sefa Dei, “Afrocentricity,” 20; Monica L. Miles et al., “Cultivating Racial Solidarity among Mathematics Education Scholars of Color to Resist White Supremacy,” International Journal of Critical Pedagogy 10, no. 2 (2019): 98–126.

8. Peggy Gabo Ntseane, “Culturally Sensitive Transformational Learning: Incorporating the

Afrocentric Paradigm and African Feminism,” Adult Education Quarterly 61, no. 4 (2011): 307–23, 308–309.

9. I use the term underrepresented and racially minoritized to signify the marginalization and subordination of people of color in US institutions, including colleges and universities. Minoritized acknowledges a system of actionable policies and practices that racialize Black, Latinx, and Indigenous peoples, as opposed to the passive minority in underrepresented minorities, which implies some inherent and normalized state of affairs. Instead, they are rendered minorities by

overrepresentation of White supremacy, which actively creates a society that normalizes a hegemonic world view to the detriment of non-White people.

10. Julie Kaomea, “Hawaiian Math for a Sustainable Future: Envisioning a Conceptual Framework for Rigorous and Culturally Relevant 21st Century Elementary Mathematics Education,” H lili: Multidisciplinary Research on Hawaiian WellBeing 7 (2011): 293, vol_7/11_Hulili_2011_Vol7_.

11. Jerry Lipka, Dora Andrew-Ihrke, and Eva Evelyn Yanez, “Yup’ik Cosmology to

School Mathematics: The Power of Symmetry and Proportional Measuring,” Interchange 42, no. 2 (2011): 157–83,

12. Bev Caswell et al., “We Don’t Think of It in Terms of Math, It’s Just the Way of

Life,” in Annual Perspectives in Mathematics Education: Rehumanizing Mathematics

for Black, Indigenous, and Latinx Students, eds. Imani Goffney, Rochelle Gutiérrez, and M. Boston (Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2018), 79–92, 85.

13. K. Tsianina Lomawaima and Jeffrey Ostler, “Reconsidering Richard Henry Pratt: Cultural Genocide and Native Liberation in an Era of Racial Oppression,” Journal of American Indian Education 57, no. 1 (2018): 79–100.

14. Guadalupe San Miguel Jr. and Rubén Donato, “Latino Education in Twentieth-Century America: A Brief History,” in Handbook of Latinos and Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, eds. E. G. Murillo Jr. et al. (New York: Routledge, 2010), 27–62.

15. Luis C. Moll and Norma González, “Lessons from Research with Language Minority Children,” Journal of Reading Behavior 25 (1994): 439–56.

16. Norma González, Luis C. Moll, and Cathy Amanti, eds., Funds of Knowledge: Theorizing Practices in Households, Communities, and Classrooms (New York: Routledge, 2006).

17. Rubén A. Gaztambide-Fernández, “Decolonization and the Pedagogy of Solidarity,” Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society 1, no. 1 (2012): 41–67, 47.

18. Mathematics Education Scholars of Color, Registration and Planning Questionnaire, Proceedings from Mathematics Education Scholars of Color Conference, May 4, 2018,

Chicago, 1.

19. Miles et al., “Cultivating Racial Solidarity.”

20. Jesse Washington, “Declining Numbers of Blacks Seen in Math, Science,” NBC News, October 23, 2011.

21. Lawrence A. Tabak and Francis S. Collins, “Weaving a Richer Tapestry in Biomedical Science,” Science 333, no. 6045 (2011): 940–41.

22. Catherine Ashcraft and Anthony Breitzman, “Who Invents It? Women’s Participation in Information Technology Patenting,” 2012 Update, National Center for Women and Information Technology,

23. “Science Benefits from Diversity,” editorial, Nature, June 6, 2018,

24. Clare O’Connor, “Facebook’s ‘Pipeline’ Excuse: Black Women in Tech Speak Out on Diversity Failure,” Forbes, July 18, 2016,

25. Elizabeth Weise and Jessica Guynn, “Tech Jobs: Minorities Have Degrees, but Don’t Get Hired,” USA Today, October 12, 2014,

26. Lou Silva, “Reconstructing Bermuda’s Pipeline for Black Males in Education: From Mazes of Mediocrity to Pathways to Success,” presented at International Colloquium on Black Males in Education: Educational Transitions and Life Trajectories: Bridging Pathways to Success for Black Males, Bermuda College, Hamilton, Bermuda.

27. O’Connor, “Facebook’s ‘Pipeline’ Excuse.”

28. O’Connor, “Facebook’s ‘Pipeline’ Excuse.”

29. Cary Funk and Kim Parker, “Women and Men in STEM Often at Odds over Workplace Equity,” Pew Research Center Social and Demographic Trends, January 9, 2019,

30. Funk and Parker, “Women and Men in STEM.”

31. Ani Turner and Beth Beaudin-Seiler, W. K. Kellogg Foundation Report May 2018,

32. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, Racism without Racists: Color-blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2018).

33. Bonilla-Silva, Racism without Racists.

34. Ebony O. McGee and David Stovall, “Reimagining Critical Race Theory in Education: Mental Health, Healing, and the Pathway to Liberatory Praxis, Educational Theory 65, no. 5 (2015): 491–511; Darrell L. Hudson et al., “Are Benefits Conferred with Greater Socioeconomic Position Undermined by Racial Discrimination among African American Men?,” Journal of Men’s Health 9, no. 2 (2012): 127–36.

35. Aldon Morris, The Scholar Denied: W. E. B. Du Bois and the Birth of Modern Sociology (Oakland: University of California Press, 2017).

36. W. E. B. Du Bois, Black Folk Then: A History and Sociology of the Negro Race: The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois, vol. 7 (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007).

37. Jomo W. Mutegi, “A Critical Examination of the Influence of Systemic Racism in Shaping the African STEM Research Workforce,” in Diversifying STEM: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Race and Gender, eds. Ebony McGee and William H. Robinson (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2019),

38. L. R. Thompson, J. L. Davis, and Jomo Mutegi, “‘There’s No One Here That Looks Like Me’: Nation Building as a Response to African American Underrepresentation in the Sciences” (under review).

39. Araceli Espinoza, “The College Experiences of First-Generation College Latino Students in Engineering,” Journal of Latino/Latin American Studies 5, no. 2 (2013): 71–84.

40. Diley Hernandez et al., “Dismantling Stereotypes about Latinos in STEM,” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 39, no. 4 (2017): 436–51; Diley Hernandez et al., “Latino Parents’ Educational Values and STEM Beliefs,” Journal for Multicultural Education 10, no. 3 (2016): 354–67.

41. Michelle Madsen Camacho and Susan M. Lord, “Latinos and the Exclusionary Space of Engineering Education,” Latino Studies 11, no. 1 (2013): 103–12.

42. Manning Marable, ed., Dispatches from the Ebony Tower: Intellectuals Confront the African American Experience (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000).

43. Rosa M. Jimenez, “Community Cultural Wealth Pedagogies: Cultivating Auto-ethnographic Counternarratives and Migration Capital,” American Educational Research Journal (2019), doi: 0002831219866148; Miles et al., “Cultivating Racial Solidarity”; Cate C. Samuelson and Elizabeth Litzler, “Community Cultural Wealth: An Assets-based Approach to Persistence of Engineering Students of Color,” Journal of Engineering Education 105, no. 1 (2016): 93–117.

44. Marvin Lynn et al., eds., Handbook of Critical Race Theory in Education (New York: Routledge, 2013).

45. Vincent Basile and Enrique J. Lopez, “Assuming Brilliance: A Decriminalizing Approach to Educating African American and Latino Boys in Elementary School STEM Settings,” Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering 24, no. 4 (2018): 361–79; Sarah Rodriguez, Kelly Cunningham, and Alec Jordan, “STEM Identity Development for Latinas: The Role of Self-and Outside Recognition,” Journal of Hispanic Higher Education 18, no. 3 (2019): 254–72.

46. Elana Curtis et al., “What Helps and Hinders Indigenous Student Success in Higher Education Health Programmes: A Qualitative Study Using the Critical Incident Technique,” Higher Education Research & Development 34, no. 3 (2014): 486–500; Aaron P. Jackson, Steven A. Smith, and Curtis L. Hill, “Academic Persistence among Native American College Students,” Journal of College Student Development 44, no. 4 (2003): 548–65.

47. Sarah Omar Alkholy et al., “Convergence of Indigenous Science and Western Science Impacts Student’s Interest in STEM and Identity as a Scientist,” Ubiquitous Learning: An International Journal 10, no. 1 (2017): 1–13; Martin M. Chemers et al., “The Role of Efficacy and Identity in Science Career Commitment among Underrepresented Minority Students,” Journal of Social Issues 67, no. 3 (2011): 469–91.

48. Cheryl Crazy Bull and Emily R. White Hat, “Cangleska Wakan: The Ecology of the Sacred Circle and the Role of Tribal Colleges and Universities,” International Review of Education 65, no. 1 (2019): 117–41; Julia Maldonado et al., “Engagement with Indigenous Peoples and Honoring Traditional Knowledge Systems,” Climatic Change 135, no. 1 (2016): 111–26.

49. Jay T. Johnson et al., “Weaving Indigenous and Sustainability Sciences to Diversify Our Methods,” Sustainability Science 11, no. 1 (2016): 1–11; Sara Tolbert, “‘Because They Want to Teach You about Their Culture’: Analyzing Effective Mentoring Conversations between Culturally Responsible Mentors and Secondary Science Teachers of Indigenous Students in Mainstream Schools,” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 52, no. 10 (2015): 1325–61.


1. Ebony O. McGee, “High-achieving Black Students, Biculturalism, and Out-of-School STEM Learning Experiences: Exploring Some Unintended Consequences,” Journal of Urban Mathematics Education 6, no. 2 (2013): 20–41.

2. Diversity Stalled; ASEE 2019,

3. Joseph Roy, Engineering by the Numbers, 2018 Edition (Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education, 2019),

4. Mohammed A. Qazi and Martha Escobar, “Fostering the Professional Advancement of Minority STEM Faculty at HBCUs,” AACU Peer Review 21, no. 1/2 (2019),

5. Monica Stephens and Zaklya S. Wilson-Kennedy, “A Call for Transformative Leadership: Addressing the Lack of Female Full Professors in STEM at HBCUs,” AACU Peer Review 21, no. 1/2 (2019),

6. National Science Foundation, “Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering,” National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, 2019,; Roy, Engineering by the Numbers, 2018.

7. NSF, “Women, Minorities, and Disabilities in Science and Engineering.”

8. NSF, “Women, Minorities, and Disabilities in Science and Engineering.”

9. Stuart Zweben and Betsy Bizot, 2018 Taulbee Survey (Washington, DC: Computing Research Association, 2019),

10. Beth Baker, “Recruiting Minorities to the Biological Sciences: Biologists Are Trying a Range of Approaches to Diversify Their Field,” BioScience 50, no. 3 (2000): 191–95.

11. William A. Smith, “Black Faculty Coping with Racial Battle Fatigue: The Campus Racial Climate in a Post–Civil Rights Era,” in A Long Way to Go: Conversations about Race by African American Faculty and Graduate Students, ed. Darrell Cleveland (New York: Peter Lang, 2004), 171–90; William A. Smith, Man Hung, and Jeremy D. Franklin, “Racial Battle Fatigue and the Miseducation of Black Men: Racial Microaggressions, Societal Problems, and Environmental Stress,” Journal of Negro Education 80, no. 1 (2011), 63–82; William A. Smith, Daniel Solórzano, and Tara Yosso, “Challenging Racial Battle Fatigue on Historically White Campuses: A Critical Race Examination of Race-related Stress,” in Faculty of Color Teaching in Predominantly White Colleges and Universities, ed. Christine Stanley (Boston: Anker Publishing Company, 2011),



12. Ebony O. McGee and David O. Stovall, “The Mental Health of Black College Students: A Call for Critical Race Theorists to Integrate Mental Health into the Analysis,” Educational Theory 65, no. 5 (2006): 491–511, doi:10.1111/edth.12129; Derald Wing Sue, Christina M. Capodilupo, and Aisah M. B. Holder, “Racial Microaggressions in the Life Experience of Black Americans,” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 39, no. 3 (2008): 329–36.

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